The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com Culture, Language, Travel, and more Sat, 28 Mar 2020 04:22:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.5 The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/food-fit-for-a-poet/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/food-fit-for-a-poet/#respond Sat, 28 Mar 2020 04:22:16 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125776 Better than a saddle I like sandals and cane/ I’d fain/ In a straw cloak, spend my life in mist and rain(竹杖芒鞋轻胜马,谁怕!一蓑烟雨任平生。).” The verse is just one of many famous lines from the 11th century poet Su Shi (苏轼), better known under his pen name Su Dongpo (苏东坡), reflecting his tenacity and open mindedness.

Su is considered perhaps China’s greatest ever poet. Born during the Song dynasty (960 – 1279), he was described as “an incorrigible optimist, a great humanitarian, a friend of the people…And yet that might miss the sum total of what made up Su Tungpo,” by renowned 20th century writer Lin Yutang in his 1947 biography of Su.

免费黄色视频But the great poet not only lives on in verse, but in a number of culinary dishes that bear his name and his association. Su, unlike most other literati of the time, wrote extensively on food, often crafting poems for his favorite dishes. Below are some of the dishes made famous by Su:

 Dongpo Pork (东坡肉)

(VCG)

The most famous and popular dish associated with Su was invented by the man himself, though in a slightly haphazard way. Su was an official in the Song court, but after disputes with another mandarin, Wang Anshi (王安石), he was semi-exiled to serve as an official in Huangzhou, now Hebei province, without real power and no stipend. Su lived as a commoner, tilling the land and, of course, learning to cook his own meals, while still writing his poetry and calligraphy.

Su grew found of the nature, and food it provided, surrounding him. In his Upon Arrival to Huangzhou 免费黄色视频(《初到黄州》), Su wrote “living in the loop of the Yangtze, I have a taste for fish; bamboos hill after hill, I’m keen on their delicious shoots (长江绕郭知鱼美,好竹连山觉笋香).”

Su is widely credited with creating the slow-braised pork dish that now bears his name. Braising the meat on a low heat for hours, the meat would become beautifully tender. Patience was the key to the dish, as it was to Su’s philosophy on life. In his Ode to Pork (《猪肉颂》), Su wrote, “Waiting patiently, rushing has no meaning/ When the pork is braised long enough, it will become delicious (待他自熟莫催他,火候足时他自美).

But the dish didn’t become associate with Su until his tenure in Hangzhou, now Zhejiang province. Su ordered West Lake免费黄色视频 dredged and a causeway (now known as the “Su Causeway” or 苏堤) built to prevent river floods. While Su was in the city, Hangzhou locals, knowing his love of pork, would greet him with gifts of meat. Su, after braising the pork, would sliced it into neat cubes and deliver them to the workers who dredged the West Lake, or so the story goes.

Fugu (河豚

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“When Dongpo held an office in Changzhou, he began to favor puffer fish. A cook in an official’s family can cook it and the official called Dongpo tasted the fish. After chewing for a while and became silent, which panicked the host. Suddenly, Su put down his chopsticks and marveled ‘My life is worthless without it!’” wrote Sun Yi in his Editions to the Son (《示儿编》) during the Song dynasty—Dongpo had fallen in love with hetun 免费黄色视频(河豚), a type of puffer fish also known as globefish or fugu.

In 1085, Huichong (惠崇), a painter and monk, requested Su write a poem for his artwork River Scenes on a Spring Evening 免费黄色视频(《春江晚景》). Although there were no fugu in the painting, Su still obsessed over the tasty dish: “The land overrun by weeds and water studded with reeds, it’s time for globefish to swim upstream (蒌蒿满地芦牙短,正是河豚欲上时).”

Zhang Lei (张耒), a student of Su’s once wrote, “Wormwood (蒌蒿), reed bud (芦芽) and cabbage (菘菜) are best matches for fugu.” Fugu remains associated with Su to this day.

Lychee berries (荔枝)  

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“Coated with red veil and white skin like the beauty (红纱中单白玉肤),” Su wrote in his First Taste of Lychee on the Eleventh Day of April 免费黄色视频(《四月十一日初食荔枝》). Lychees had long been considered a deliciously decadent treat. During the Tang dynasty (618 – 907), many horses allegedly died of exhaustion when transporting the fruit from Lingnan (a region in present day Guangdong and Guangxi) to Chang’an (Xi’an), some 1,600 kilometers, so that Yang Yuhuan, the favorite concubine of Emperor Xuanzong, could eat them fresh. When Su Dongpo was dispatched to Ling’nan, he too fell in love with the sweet fruit.

“Eating three hundred lychees every day, I would long live in Ling’nan (日啖荔枝三百颗,不辞长作岭南人),” continued Su’s poem on lychees. At the time, Su had been exiled again, this time to Huizhou, Guangdong province. As he was removed further and further from the center of power, he became more and more interested in nature and a “common” life, indulging in the simple pleasures of food.

免费黄色视频While most ancient literati perceived themselves as serious figures of scholarship and nobility, and scorned worldly pleasures like food and cooking, Su Dongpo found escapism and inspiration in his “ordinary” life to creating extraordinary poetry. Su may be best known as a poet, but he lives on in the scent of slowly braising sweet pork and the juicy flesh of ripe fruit too.

Cover Image from VCG

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/5-mao-dun-literary-prize-winners/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/5-mao-dun-literary-prize-winners/#respond Fri, 27 Mar 2020 05:38:24 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125705 “Literature is not intended to provide relief for those who suffer from the ennui of life,” but to “shoulder the heavy responsibility of awakening the masses,” wrote 20th century novelist, journalist, and playwright Mao Dun (茅盾), who played a passionate part in the intellectual movements that birthed modern Chinese literature.

Born in 1886, in the decaying years of dynastic China, Mao Dun participated in the May Fourth movement of 1919, founded the League of Left-Wing Writers in 1930, and eventually became Minister of Culture of the PRC until 1964. Following his death, the first Mao Dun Literature Prize was awarded in 1982.

Today, the prize is worth 500,000 RMB (70,628 USD), and is granted by the state-sanctioned Chinese Writers Association once every four years to five novels of over 130,000 characters that are authored by Chinese nationals and published on the Chinese mainland. The prize came under fire in 2011 when it was found that eight of the top 10 shortlisted novels were written by leaders of provincial writers’ associations. Nevertheless, it remains one of China’s most prestigious literary prizes.

With the average age of Mao Dun laureates at 62 years old, winning works tend to reflect the turmoil of the 20th century: serious in tone and sometimes heavy-handed in the themes of class, exploitation, and injustice.

On the 39th anniversary of Mao Dun’s death on March 27, 1981, TWOC presents five novels that have received the Mao Dun Literature Prize and have been translated into English:

 

A Small Town Called Hibiscus《芙蓉镇》by Gu Hua
Published 1981 in Chinese; 1983 in English
Mao Dun Literary Prize 1982

Gu Hua, born in mountainous Hunan province in 1942, has been called the “Thomas Hardy of Hunan” for his depictions of rural life. His novel A Small Town Called Hibiscus was awarded the inaugural Mao Dun Literary Prize in 1982. Emblematic of the “scar literature” movement, the novel portrays the traumas of life during the Cultural Revolution and under the rule of the Gang of Four. 

The protagonist is an industrious young woman who runs a bustling spicy tofu cart. When the “Four Cleanups” movement comes to town in 1964 to root out “rightists,” she is declared a “new rich peasant” and her home and business are confiscated. The ensuing humiliations and misfortunes illustrate the malicious force of small town politics and the suffering of peasants. The novel was adapted into the film Hibiscus Town (1986), which won several Golden Rooster awards in 1987.

 

Heavy Wings《沉重的翅膀》by Zhang Jie
Published 1985 in Chinese; 1987 in English
Mao Dun Literary Prize 1985

Zhang Jie, born 1937 in what was then Japanese-ruled Manchuria, now Liaoning province, is one of few female writers to receive the Mao Dun prize—and became the first author to win it twice, in 1985 for Heavy Wings and in 2005 for Without a Word.

Heavy Wings takes place in Morning Light Auto Works in Beijing, where party hardliners and reformers clash over management. The publisher writes that the novel “provoked a storm of controversy with its frank portrayal of party corruption and mismanagement, its eloquent feminism, and its ringing defense of individualism.”

Change is depicted as a slow and painful process spanning generations. The protagonist Zheng Ziyun, a vice minister of heavy industry, reflects to his daughter, “You must allow and accept that I am also a caterpillar in the process of undergoing a painful metamorphosis. Perhaps I won’t necessarily turn into a butterfly before I die.”

 

 

The Scenery of the Lake and Mountain《湖光山色》by Zhou Daxin
Published 2006 in Chinese; 2017 in English
Mao Dun Literary Prize 2008

Zhou Daxin, born in 1952 to a rural family in Dengzhou, Henan province, joined the army after secondary school yet persisted in his writing, beginning to publish in 1979. He completed The Scenery of the Lake and Mountain in his 50s.

When archeologists discover the 2,000-year-old walls of the State of Chu in her town, Nuannuan’s hotel business takes off. Her husband wins the election for village chief, and begins a gradual yet perilous descent into corruption and debauchery. The novel explores a changing economy against the backdrop of entrenched abuses of power, and questions the proper safeguarding of cultural heritage sites amid their commercialization.

 

Frog《蛙》by Mo Yan
Published 2009 in Chinese; 2015 in English
Mao Dun Literary Prize 2011

Mo Yan, born in 1955 to an agricultural family in Shandong province, left school at age 11 with the launch of the Cultural Revolution, and eventually joined the army, where his literary talent was discovered.

Frog, set in Mo Yan’s hometown of Gaomi, follows a midwife determined to enforce the one-child policy, overseeing thousands of abortions the policy’s introduction in 1979. Drenched in amphibian symbolism, with a narrator named Tadpole and the croaking of frogs mirroring the cries of newborn infants, the novel explores the idea that “Family planning is about achieving great issues of humanity by denying minor ones.”

Mo Yan went on to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012, and was lauded by the Nobel committee as an author “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history, and the contemporary.” 

 

Massage《推拿》by Bi Feiyu
Published 2008 in Chinese; 2015 in English
Mao Dun Literary Prize 2011

Bi Feiyu, born in 1964 in Jiangsu province, worked at a training school for teachers of the blind and deaf before becoming a reporter for Nanjing Daily. Following a shoulder injury in 2003, he received treatment at a blind massage parlor, where he befriended his masseurs and drew upon their experiences for Massage.

The novel follows Wang Daifu, a practitioner of tuina massage, as he comes to a massage parlor. His life intersects with that of 14 other blind masseurs, as they strike up friendships and romances, undergo feuds and revelations, and even make love in a scene involving the careful and systematic removal of clothing so that they may be found later. Bi insists that the novel wasn’t written to highlight the plight of China’s visually impaired, but to write a common novel about dignity and respect rather than sympathy and pity. “Not being able to see is a limitation. So is being able to see,” a character muses.

The novel has been adapted into the TV series Seeing without Looking (2013), as well as the feature film Blind Massage (2014), which won a Golden Horse Award in Taiwan.

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/free-online-courses-bring-confucius-to-life/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/free-online-courses-bring-confucius-to-life/#respond Thu, 26 Mar 2020 17:50:37 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125727 免费黄色视频All around the world people are staying in, practicing social distancing to fight against Covid-19. But there is still a way to explore China’s history and culture from the comfort of one’s home:  is offering a number of free online classes that take users on a to Shandong province, the birthplace of Confucius.

These courses are narrated by “Little Qilin,” a mythical creature signifying good luck that was supposedly present at the sage’s birth.  One , “Qufu免费黄色视频” explores Confucius’s home city. Users learn about the life of the legendary philosopher and are taken on a tour of three UNESCO sites: the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion. Users also virtually experience the “Kong Family Feast,” an ancient banquet.

In another , learners can explore the seaside city of Qingdao, China’s beer capital免费黄色视频. A joint project by the Shandong Culture and Tourism Department and the Confucius Institute, these courses aims to share with Chinese-learners the rich history and culture of the province.

 

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免费黄色视频These lessons also prelude the Shandong Culture and Tourism Department’s upcoming recruitment of 20,000 international “Confucius Tourism Envoys,” who will be tasked with sharing and promoting the wonders of the cradle of Confucius and Shandong’s unique cultural heritage. As a result of the coronavirus outbreak, the recruitment process has been postponed to later this year.

免费黄色视频In the meantime, you can visit the Confucius Institute Online for a wide selection of , or download Chinese Bridge, the official app for the Chinese Bridge Chinese Proficiency Competition, to learn more about Chinese language and Shandong’s history and culture.

During this difficult time, with many cooped up indoors, we hope this virtual tour of historic Shandong offers a healthy dose of escapism for our readers!

 


Check out Rivers Deep, Mountain High, TWOC’s guide to Shandong. Find it in our , or get a free copy on WeChat! 

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/the-jade-rush/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/the-jade-rush/#respond Thu, 26 Mar 2020 02:41:42 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125689 In 2017, Jiangxi tourist Fei Jianqin visited Ruili, a city in Yunnan province near the Myanmar border and well-known distribution center in the Chinese jade trade—and learned a hard lesson about the value of the precious rock.

Like most tourists to the frontier city, Fei’s itinerary included a visit to a well-known local jade store, where she tried on a bracelet. On hearing that the trinket was priced at 300,000 RMB, Fei tried to take it off, fumbled, and dropped it, breaking it into pieces. Upon seeing the damage, she fainted with shock.

Much of the public sided with Fei in the brouhaha that followed, blaming the seller for putting such a valuable item on casual display, especially after it emerged that Fei had to compensate the store 70 percent of the product’s value (thankfully re-appraised by a third-party organization at 180,000 RMB).

Serious collectors, though, had little patience for these amateur blunders. “There is a saying, ‘jade shouldn’t pass through one’s hands (玉不过手),’” a jade expert surnamed Wang from Fujian Jewelry Association told Sohu afterward. “After the jade is touched, its surface will no longer be clear, making it difficult to tell whether the product is real or false.”

“What’s more,” said Wang, “jade is fragile. Once it drops during passing, it’s hard to decide whose fault it is.” According to local jade sellers, the bracelet that Fei broke was just a “medium-range one,” and it’s not difficult to find pieces worth millions casually displayed on the counter of one’s local jewelry store.

As a Chinese saying suggests, “Gold has a price, while jade is priceless.” This is literally true today. Unlike diamonds or gold, no international pricing index exists for jade. Instead, the price of each piece is set between the seller and the buyer in private transactions or public auctions based on the rock’s size, shape, transparency, texture, place of origin, craftsmanship, and even ownership history.

免费黄色视频Prices vary dramatically: On online marketplace Taobao, one can buy a small jade amulet at 100 RMB (15 USD). However, in 2015, Sotheby’s Hong Kong auctioned off an art deco jade brooch by Cartier for 930,000 USD.

High-quality jade is often carved into large ornaments

More confusingly, jade (玉) is a generic title for two chemically different substances which are physically similar. One, jadeite, known as “hard jade” (硬玉) or feicui免费黄色视频 (翡翠) in Chinese, comes exclusively from Myanmar, and appears in many colors—including blue, brown, red, black, dark green, lavender, and white.

The other is nephrite, or “soft jade” (软玉), which traditionally comes from western China and was in vogue long before jadeite. Usually found in creamy white or a variety of light green hues, it’s also referred to as “Hetian Jade,” after the region in Xinjiang that historically produced it. It’s this lustrous type of jade that has been frequently extolled in traditional Chinese literature—compared to the complexion of beautiful women, invoked to symbolize moral purity, and linked to mythical figures like the Jade Emperor, the ruler of heaven.

All of this has led to China’s jade investment sector booming faster than regulations can keep up with, buoyed by rising domestic consumption and several millennia of cultural feeling. Online sales channels have also recently entered into the mix, further blurring the lines for new investors on what is real, fake, or valuable.

免费黄色视频Though China does not publish the amount of jade it imports from Myanmar—much of which is mined in the conflict-ridden Kachin State—the Harvard Ash Center estimated as of 2011 that the global jadeite trade was worth 8 billion USD, with demand almost entirely driven by the Chinese market. According to news website Vision Times, in 2016, the nephrite jade market was estimated to be worth 30 billion USD.

Any mistake from the carver will devalue the jade

免费黄色视频Liu Ziyue, a salesperson for a luxury brand in Paris, believes only Chinese customers have special feelings for jade. “In the Western market, jade is never a mainstream good,” she says. While Western jewelry brands use jade, it’s treated no different from other gemstones. “When Chinese people wear jade, they always wear a whole piece; whereas Western customers might just use a small amount of jade, mounted in gold.”

免费黄色视频Jade has never been just a gemstone in China. Archeological findings suggest that during the Neolithic Age, jade had already been used in China to offer as sacrifices to gods or drive away evil spirits. In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (770 – 221 BCE), aristocrats began to wear jade accessories, with different items and colors denoting different social ranks.

Upon unifying the realm in 221 BCE, China’s first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is said to have fashioned an imperial seal from the He Shi Bi (和氏璧), a priceless disk of nephrite. This “Heirloom Seal of the Realm” (传国玉玺) was fought over by a succession of later emperors and warlords as a symbol of their legitimacy to rule, before disappearing sometime between the 10th and 13th century—but jade’s association with power remained. Twenty-three jade seals belonging to emperors of the Qing dynasty are in the collection of Beijing’s Palace Museum.

The characteristics of the precious stone also became associated with Confucian gentlemen, or junzi免费黄色视频 (君子), who habitually wore a jade girdle to demonstrate their virtue. Second-century scholar Xu Shen concluded, based on Confucius teachings, that jade “embodies the five virtues”: kindness (symbolized by its gentle luster); righteousness (its transparency); wisdom (it can be made into musical instruments); bravery (it can be crushed, but never bends); and incorruptibility (it is sharp, but is never used to commit violence). These traits coalesced in the saying, “A gentleman does not remove jade from himself without reason (君子无故,玉不去身).”

Today, though, jade’s main consumers are “middle-aged women,” according to Fan Jing, a gemologist working for Guangdong Gem and Jade Exchange Center, a jade dealing organization. “Influenced by traditional culture, Chinese women have a special feeling for jade, and usually only those with certain economic status can afford jade of relatively good quality,” she explains.

免费黄色视频According to Fan, consumers often pay attention to a jade item’s appearance first, and then look at its investment value. “Jade is only expensive when the material is of good quality, and made into relatively large objects, like bracelets or ornaments. Its value first depends on the material, then on the workmanship.”

If one can choose the right piece, jade can make for a spectacular investment. In 2014, a necklace once owned by Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton was sold for 27.4 million USD at auction, more than six times the price it was auctioned off at 20 years prior.

A worker extracting jade from a rock in Liaoning province

Other collectors prefer an even riskier investment—“gambling rocks.” Investors buy a raw jade stone in the hope that there will be valuable jade within. Since it’s difficult to tell a jade rock from a normal rock, the investor does not know, until they cut it open, whether their purchase was priceless or worthless. An unopened rock may be sold and re-sold through several gamblers, its price inflated with each transaction as the mystery builds.

But even if one buys a valuable jade stone, and extracts a fine jade piece, there is still no guarantee of return. “Sometimes, you buy the jade material at 10,000 RMB, and ask a master to carve it. But if the master makes a mistake, the value will decrease,” says Zhang Huimin, a 34-year-old jade lover from Inner Mongolia.

免费黄色视频Zhang is one of a number of collectors who prefer Hetian jade to jadeite. “Jadeite has just been hyped up in recent decades,” Zhang analyzes. “It didn’t spread in China until the Qing dynasty, when Myanmar paid it as tribute to the Qing government. I feel it doesn’t have any vintage, only a spectacular price.”

免费黄色视频Zhang received her first jade piece as a teenager, when her father bought her a jadeite bracelet from Yunnan province. This item was accidentally broken when Zhang was in university, but she still keeps the pieces. “There is a saying, if jade breaks, it has taken misfortune on behalf of its owner,” says Zhang.

免费黄色视频Many investors buy jade in hopes that its value will rise after it’s carved

免费黄色视频Since 2017, Zhang has been collecting jade by herself. By now, she has bought over 20 pieces, mostly bracelets, pendants and strings of jade beads. “I almost have all the colors,” she boasts. “I also have two raw nephrite rocks.”

免费黄色视频All across China, multiple sales channels for the stone are growing, including jade exhibitions, auction houses, wholesale trading centers, retail spaces—and even social media. Zhang buys all her jade through Taobao’s live streaming service, watching a broadcaster display the item on camera before placing an online order, or entering in a live bid against other viewers. “[Physical] jade stores in my area often inflate the price, so I never buy there,” states Zhang.

免费黄色视频But Zhang admits that it’s riskier to rely on internet channels. “Buying jade through live streaming means you have to trust the taste of the host. Usually, I will check how many followers they have, how long they have been in this industry and their past credit record. When you have seen enough, you can figure out some of the rules.”

However, even the vigilant aren’t safe from unscrupulous sellers. Chinese media reported in 2019 that a man surnamed Xu from Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, joined a WeChat group consisting of 255 members, where jade auctions are often held. After a month of lurking, Xu decided to join in the auction, and splurged about 70,000 RMB on four bracelets and one pendant.

Buyers can bargain with the seller in the jade market

免费黄色视频To his surprise, when Xu brought his purchases to a professional jade appraising organization, he was told all of the pieces were made of either low-quality jade or even compound rocks. Xu reported the case to the police, who then found that all the other 254 accounts in the group were actually controlled by four busy swindlers.

免费黄色视频Fan tells TWOC that such scams are common in the domestic market: In the nephrite trade, dishonest dealers may masquerade the more common “mountain jade” (山料) as the much rarer—and hence pricier—“riverbed jade” (籽料). Likewise, with jadeite, chemically treated “Type B” or artificially stained “Type C” rocks may be passed off as natural “Type A” jade. “One had better buy jade in trusted stores, and ask for certificates,” advises Fan.

Zhang, though, points out there are even stores that sell only fake jade—and that for some amateur buyers, the look and cultural prestige of the item are enough. “In some live streaming rooms, an entirely green jadeite bracelet may only sell for 100 kuai. Both the seller and the buyers know it’s a fake, though none of them will say so,” says Zhang. “[Some] people buy them only for fun, after all.”

A user on Masok. com, an online shopping forum, agreed, writing “A true jade lover won’t judge if a piece of jade is real or fake. As long as it’s a good jade, it is priceless. Everyone has a different understanding of jade culture.”

Zhang believes that it’s not only the market value that draws Chinese consumers to keep coming back for more despite all the rock’s uncertainties as an investment. “I remember when I was a kid, my grandfather had a tobacco pipe with its cigarette holder made of jade, and I liked it very much,” Zhang says. “I think perhaps jade embodies the characteristics of Chinese people—gentle, smooth, and quiet, not aggressively shining like other gems.”


The Jade Rush” is a story from our issue, “Alpine Ambitions”. To read the entire issue, become a subscriber and receive the full magazine. Alternatively, you can purchase the digital version from the .

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/mythical-mulan/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/mythical-mulan/#respond Wed, 25 Mar 2020 03:49:54 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125669 The legend of Mulan is one of the oldest and most beloved stories in China, and many different versions of the story have appeared throughout history.

Many readers will doubtless have obsessed over the 1998 animated Disney adaptation and sung along nostalgically to the soundtrack. In the earliest adaptations, though, Mulan had no love interests and, sadly, no talking dragon named Mushu. 

With the release of a live-action Disney remake of Mulan postponed amid coronavirus concerns, here are the most well-known versions of the ‘true’ Mulan, a mythical warrior woman from the Northern Wei Dynasty (386 – 535) who spared her aging father from military conscription and served her country with distinction.

Ballad of Mulan

The first transcription of the legend of Mulan comes from the 6th century Musical Records of Old and New. Although the original text is to history, the story is passed on in the “” 

In the poem, Mulan is weaving at a loom. She sighs as she thinks of the upcoming army draft that demands one male from each household. Worried for her elderly father and young brother, Mulan decides to take her father’s place and fight as a man. 

Contrary to the popular Disney version, Mulan is already a polished warrior, trained in swordsmanship and martial arts. Her father and mother are proud of her abilities and allow her to serve in the army, where she distinguishes herself for 12 years before being offered riches and an official government post. Instead, Mulan humbly asks for a camel to return home to her family.

Once home, she dons women’s clothes, revealing to her befuddled comrades that she had been a woman all along. 

Statue of Mulan’s father welcoming her home in Xinxiang, China (Wikimedia Commons)

More than a thousand years later, Ming dynasty (1368 – 1644) playwright, Xu Wei, this version for the stage. Xu also gave Mulan the last name, “Hua” (花, flower), which went well with “Mulan” (木兰, magnolia). Older versions show her last name as Zhu or Wei.

Sui-Tang Romance 

During the Qing dynasty (1644 – 1911), novelist Chu Renhuo popularized another, version of the Mulan legend. First appearing in 1695, Chu’s adaptation situates Mulan under the rule of a foreign Turkic khan at the time of the Tang dynasty’s founding, around 620 CE. In this version, the khan joins forces with the Tang emperor to unify China. 

Once again, Mulan’s family is asked to provide a male soldier to fight in the war, but her father, Hua Hu, is old and has no eligible male sons to fight. Disguising herself as a man, Mulan leaves to join the main army, but is intercepted by the Xia king and his warrior daughter, Dou Xianniang. 

The two warrior women are delighted to have found one another, becoming laotong, or “bonded sisters.” Things quickly turn sour, however, when the Xia king sides with the Tang’s enemy and is defeated. 

Mulan and Xianniang offer up their own lives to the Tang emperor in place of the condemned army men. Moved by their act of filial piety, the emperor spares their lives.

But Mulan is still denied a happy ending. Upon returning home, she finds her beloved father dead and her mother remarried. Shortly afterwards, the khan summons her to become his concubine, and Mulan commits suicide, declaring she will only ever be loyal to her father. 

Other Adaptations 

免费黄色视频A woodcut painting depicting Mulan going off to war in the “Ballad of Mulan”

In other versions of her legend, Mulan falls in love with a handsome general called Jin Yong, reminiscent of Li Shang in the 1998 Disney film. However, the couple cannot be together until Mulan stops living life as a man, which she does in a dazzling reveal that earns her the respect of the troops and spurs them to victory. 

In addition to these primary versions, Mulan’s story has been reimagined countless times in film, television, opera, and literature. Adaptations range from a 1927 silent entitled Hua Mulan Joins the Army to a bizarre comic called “Deadpool Killustrated” in which Mulan, Sherlock Holmes, and others attempt to stop Marvel’s Deadpool from killing literary characters. 

In all the adaptations, Mulan is driven by her devotion to family and country, traits which have made her a popular motif in art and literature. However, her story can also be read as an early critique of traditional gender roles. In the “Ballad of Mulan,” she is trained in the “feminine” art of weaving, but she also lives life as a male soldier for 12 years, and no one could tell the difference. The ballad ends Mulan’s story provocatively with the following two couplets, painting a thin line between male and female: 

For the male hare has a lilting, lolloping gait,

And the female hare has a wild and roving eye;

But set them both scampering side by side,

And who so wise could tell you “This is he”?

All images from VCG

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/doctors-at-a-distance/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/doctors-at-a-distance/#respond Tue, 24 Mar 2020 06:19:14 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125652 免费黄色视频With millions of Chinese pushed into the shelter of their own homes in recent months by the coronavirus outbreak, going out to see a doctor or pick up medicine suddenly became impossible, or at least perceived as risky.

Faced with such difficulties, and increasingly anxious that they may have contracted Covid-19 themselves, thousands have flocked to medical apps and websites to get their care remotely. 

Now, with life across the country slowly returning to normal, the companies behind these services are hoping the boom in online healthcare will continue. But underlying issues such as a lack of trust, patchy regulations, and privacy concerns spell an uncertain future for the market. 

免费黄色视频Online healthcare platforms, which began to emerge in China around five years ago, typically monitor the health data of users and offer consultations with doctors through video chat. They often link poorly equipped rural clinics to urban doctors, and even use AI to diagnose diseases.

User numbers, though, have soared in 2020, with anxiety linked to Covid-19 a core part of the increased demand—on Weibo, the hashtag “What to do if I always suspect I’ve got the virus” has been viewed 570 million times. 

Long lines at hospitals, which increases the risk for cross-infection, make online health platforms attractive during the Covid-19 epidemic

免费黄色视频Ping An Good Doctor, a telemedicine app founded in 2014, claimed in mid-February that it had recorded 1.1 billion visits to its platform since the outbreak, and that new user registrations had increased by 1,000 percent. According to , from January 22 to February 25, doctors on Ping An gave over 4.26 million online consultations, of which 25 percent were related to Covid-19; there were 20,000 doctors on average giving consultations daily.

免费黄色视频JD Health, a similar platform, claimed that monthly consultations increased tenfold since the outbreak and that it was seeing 100,000 online consultations per day in February, with the largest number from Wuhan. Alihealth, owned by e-commerce firm Alibaba, set up a free “online clinic” for those in the hard hit Hubei province, allowing users to buy and receive medicine without venturing outdoors.

Dingxiang Doctor, an online health information platform, set up a “Coronavirus Emergency Group” just a few hours after it was announced on January 21 that human-to-human transmission of the virus had been confirmed. Its tracking map for coronavirus infection numbers and locations had been viewed 2.5 billion times as of the beginning of March, according to the , and the platform had 15,000 doctors working during the outbreak to offer online consultations and suggestions for treatment.

China’s telemedicine market had been growing steadily before the recent boom. Seen as a solution to the uneven distribution of China’s healthcare services, which causes patients to flock to highly-rated urban hospitals even for minor ailments, the remote healthcare industry was estimated to be worth around 49 billion RMB (6.9 billion USD) in 2019.

But the virus has accelerated growth: the market is expected to hit 100 billion RMB (14 billion USD) this year and 200 billion RMB (28 billion USD) by 2026, according to , a technology news website. The stock price of Ping An Good Doctor has surged 33 percent from this time last year, while Alihealth’s have risen an even more impressive 58 percent, even as the rest of China’s economy slumps due to the outbreak.

It’s not only private companies that have gotten in on the act: public hospitals and local governments are also using technology to reach patients. A hospital in Wei’an, Jiangsu province, an “online clinic” to alleviate the normally large lines seen at the hospital, which could potentially lead to cross-infections. Patients who suspect they have Covid-19 can have their symptoms checked out online, get medicine prescribed, and find out whether they need to come to the hospital for treatment.

On January 31, a patient was diagnosed as negative for Covid-19 by doctors in Guizhou by a remote consultation over a distance of 295 kilometers. In Hefei, Anhui province, a “Remote Image Healthcare Platform” has screened nearly 90,000 X-rays for the virus. Government-backed and volunteer organizations have also offered mental health consultations by telephone and online.

But getting the public to trust online medical care remains a challenge, and regulations are needed to ensure that doctors working on these platforms provide the best care. Dr. Zhang Qu, a pediatrician in Zhejiang province who works part-time for an online healthcare platform, told that doctors cannot give a diagnosis online, “just a few treatment suggestions,” as Chinese regulations limit online medical services to follow-up consultations and prescriptions, and don’t allow first-time diagnosis. Platforms have only been authorized to sell prescription drugs since 2018. 

A “5G remote healthcare” system on display at a technology fair in Wuhan in 2019

In most of the country, health insurance doesn’t cover online medical expenses at present, another barrier to the potential of these services, though some provinces have lifted this restriction in response to the virus outbreak. The privacy of users’ sensitive health data remains a problem, too, in the absence of industry standards for keeping online information secure—according to Dr. Zhang, many of his recent patients are worried about being forced into quarantine if local residential committees find out they have a fever, and he is frequently asked whether online consultations are recorded.

免费黄色视频The SARS outbreak in 2003 is seen as the start of China’s e-commerce revolution, which is now an essential part of life for millions in the country. It remains to be seen if 2020’s public health emergency will bring the same long-term boost to online care.

All images from VCG

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/viral-week-ep-239/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/viral-week-ep-239/#respond Mon, 23 Mar 2020 07:26:39 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125622 Viral Week is our weekly round-up of the weekend’s trending memes, humor, rumor, gossip, and everything else Chinese netizens are chatting about.

免费黄色视频This week, a whistleblower finally gets his apology, a jogger flouts quarantine, a village blockade turns deadly, and officials eat for the nation:

 

Apologize too late

Wuhan’s police department have revoked their letter of reprimand for the late Dr. Li Wenliang, who raised early alarm on the coronavirus outbreak in December but was accused of “spreading rumors.” Police have issued an apology to Li’s family.

Academic gifts

After a month of providing medical relief in Huanggang, Hubei province,  a doctor from Shandong province went home with a gift for his 8-year-old son: a set of exercise books based on the city’s notoriously difficult mock gaokao 免费黄色视频tests (the boy allegedly asked for the gift, though his father admits he probably thought it was some kind of food).

Running amok

An Australian-Chinese woman has been fired by her employer, the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, for flouting quarantine rules in Beijing to go jogging outside without a mask. Authorities in Beijing have introduced mandatory 14-day quarantine at government facilities for passengers arriving from abroad, and some flights are being diverted from Beijing to other cities, in an attempt to prevent “imported” Covid-19 cases from spreading in the community.

Home runs

A 66-year-old marathon runner and former Beijing Olympic torchbearer, who was more conscientious of neighborhood rules, has clocked 513 kilometers of running under quarantine—by doing 1,000 laps a day between his kitchen and living room 免费黄色视频for 50 days.

Deadly blockade

While returning home from selling vegetables, a woman in Hebei province died after driving her electric scooter into a steel wire erected as a makeshift blockade on a rural road. Many villages免费黄色视频 have implemented their own “hardcore” quarantine techniques to protect against the virus, like blocking roads, although such measures have been prohibited by the central government.

Aggrieved thief

免费黄色视频As workers across China resume employment after Covid-19, a pickpocket in Sichuan province also headed back to work—and got caught on her first day. “How can you be so busy during a disease outbreak?” she asked police, perplexed.

Eating for the nation

The lifting of quarantine measures across much of China have galvanized local officials to take up their favorite activity: creating patriotic movements. The “Down to the Restaurant” movement saw a Nanjing party secretary heroically eating duck blood vermicelli免费黄色视频, and a Zhangjiajie party secretary drinking coffee before the backdrop of mountains, to encourage people to eat out in order to resuscitate the food and beverage industry.

Other officials took inspiration from livestreamers免费黄色视频, and themselves selling local agricultural products.

Actor cleared

Chinese actor Gao Yunxiang and producer Wang Jing were cleared of charges that they sexually assaulted a woman in a hotel in Sydney, Australia in 2018 (though the incident is still likely to sink Gao’s career at home, due to China’s strict regulations on moral behavior of artists).

Welcome to the neighbor-hoot

After a Ms. Zhao from Henan province found a mother owl in the pipe of her kitchen ventilator, she decided to not use the kitchen, and even moved her family out of their apartment, to give the owl family some space. Four baby owls hatched last week, and Ms. Zhao was awarded a certificate of honor by the local forestry bureau for her good deed.

Cover image by /

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/red-recipe/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/red-recipe/#respond Sun, 22 Mar 2020 00:00:55 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125540 “Definitely not for the faint of heart,” a user on catering platform Food Fanatic writes of Chongqing’s beloved “raw blood” soup, mao xie wang (毛血旺). Consisting of blood curds, tripe, and other choice animal organs boiled in a pungent, bright red broth of chili sauce and Sichuan peppercorns, the dish resembles a vampire’s feast in looks as well as name.

Yet Chinese diners can’t get enough of it: According to review app Meituan-Dianping, this sanguine soup was the number-one selling restaurant and take-out dish in all first-tier Chinese cities in 2017. Its name is also written as 冒血旺, with 冒 meaning “rough” in the Chongqing dialect. The 血旺 (“blood curds”) or 血豆腐 (“blood tofu”) are usually made of duck, pig, or chicken blood, seasoned with salt and heated to form a solid block.

Though the exact origin of blood consumption in China is unclear, blood began to be served as part of religious rituals as far back as the Zhou dynasty (1046 – 256 BCE), according to The Rites of Zhou. During the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 AD), a medical text listed pig’s blood as a treatment for strokes and headaches, and the 16th century’s Compendium of Materia Medica免费黄色视频 suggested duck’s blood as an antidote to poison. The consumption of innards likely originated from food shortages in ancient times and the folk belief that eating animal organs nourishes the corresponding human parts.

Mao xie wang免费黄色视频’s origin is more recent: Legend states that in the 1940s, a butcher’s wife in the town of Ciqikou, Chongqing, was loath to waste the leftover pig innards and scraps from her husband’s shop, and decided to sell them in a soup. One day, the woman accidentally tipped some blood curd into the broth, and, surprisingly, found that the blood grew tender and flavorsome after boiling, so the dish caught on. These days, duck’s blood is more commonly used than pig’s blood for its fresher taste and softer texture.

After Chongqing separated from Sichuan province to form a municipality in 1997, the local food, known as Yu (渝) cuisine, has grown in popularity and developed a reputation distinct from the Sichuanese culinary tradition. It is also known as jianghu (江湖, folk) cuisine for its large portions, grassroots origins, and innovations with different ingredients and cooking methods. In 2012, the municipal authority released standardized recipes for 12 signature Yu dishes, including mao xie wang免费黄色视频. Still, the recipe for “raw blood soup” varies across the nation. It can be made with custom ingredients, or a ready-made hot pot soup base.

Steps:

  1. Cut the blood and ham into 3cm cubes, and the tripe into smaller pieces. Cut the squid segments into flower shapes
  2. Chop the dried chili pepper, leek, and coriander; slice the ginger
  3. Boil the ginger and the leeks in 1 liter of water. Add the blood curds, ham, and squid. Boil together for 1 minute, drain, and set aside
  4. Heat 2 tsp of oil in a wok. Fry the soup base and bean sauce until melted. Add 500 ml water and 1 tsp of yellow rice wine
  5. Cook the ham, blood, and squid mixture from Step Three in the boiled soup for 4 minutes, and add the salt. Add the tripe, cook for a further minute, and then pour into a bowl
  6. Heat 3 tsp of oil, and fry the chili pepper and Sichuan peppercorn over low heat until aromatic. Pour the oil into the bowl and serve with coriander

“Red Recipe” is a story from our issue, “Alpine Ambitions”. To read the entire issue, become a subscriber and receive the full magazine. Alternatively, you can purchase the digital version from the .

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/selling-out/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/selling-out/#respond Sat, 21 Mar 2020 05:10:01 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125545 “Merchants and robbers show courage by viciously fighting for profits and property, showing no mercy, mindful only of gain,” philosopher Xunzi (荀子) sneered in the third century BCE, referencing the Confucian caste system that ranked practitioners of commerce firmly on the bottom rung beneath scholars, farmers, and artisans, barely a step above common criminals.

免费黄色视频The philosopher would most definitely be aghast at the cult of Li Jiaqi today: The 28-year-old live streamer, who got his start by reviewing cosmetics on e-commerce platform Taobao, has been hailed as a “demon” of commerce due to his extraordinary “带货能力 (dàihuò nénglì),” ability to hypnotize viewers into buy anything. Li is credited by Taobao for stimulating over 1 billion RMB’s worth of sales during last November’s “Single’s Day,” and his ecstatic catchphrases—“Oh my God!” and “Buy it! Buy it! Buy it!”—spawned several imitators who have gone viral in their own right, ranging from a fire marshal in Jiangsu province to a 9-year-old boy.

免费黄色视频Most ordinary folks don’t profit from recommending products to their friends and family, but their word-of-mouth promotion is no less important to the modern economy—it’s the raison d’etre of apps like Dianping and Xiaohongshu, after all. Whether it’s by discovering a niche fashion brand or starting the conversation on an avant-garde film, many people strive to be the “influencer” of their social group, to the extent that there is a special term for their pushiness: “卖安利 (mài Ānlì, selling Amway),” after the American direct-sales company notorious for their aggressive marketing tactics.

The term can be used self-deprecatingly as either a verb or noun,to convey one’s obsession with a new find:

 

I’ve found a super effective facial mask. I have to Amway it to you!

Wǒ fāxiàn le yìkuǎn chāojí hǎoyòng de miànmó, bìxū Ānlì gěi nǐ!

我发现了一款超级好用的面膜,必须安利给你!

 

Bro! Eat my Amway! The Dongpo Pork at this restaurant is practically art!

Xiōngdì! Chī wǒ Ānlì! Zhè jiā diàn de Dōngpō Ròu jiǎnzhí shì yìshù!

兄弟!吃我安利!这家店的东坡肉简直是艺术!

 

Fans of certain celebrities and subcultures have, of course, been experts at selling their favorite works or idols long before there was a word for it:

 

You must see this movie! The story! The cast! The costume!The atmosphere! You can’t find a flaw!

Nǐ bìxū děi kàn zhè bù diànyǐng! Nà jùqíng! Nà zhènróng! Nà fúzhuāng! Nà fēnwéi! Yīqiè dōu wúkě tiāotì!

你必须得看这部电影!那剧情!那阵容!那服装!那氛围!一切都无可挑剔!

 

免费黄色视频But a good “Amway seller” knows that just raising one’s voice or adding exclamation marks is not enough to clinch a deal. This has led a number of folk sayings and internet slang terms usually associated with street vendors to creep into everyday recommendations among friends, like “走过路过不要错过!( Zǒuguò lùguò búyào cuòguò! Walk past it, but don’t miss it),” “入股不亏,稳赚不赔!(Rùgǔ bù kuī, wěn zhuàn bù péi! Costs nothing to join, earns steady gain without loss),” “过了这个村儿就没这个店儿! (Guòle zhège cūnr jiù méi zhège diànr! You won’t find this shop after you pass this village).”

 

Don’t miss this! A god-like idol with good looks and talent! Costs nothing to check it out, and you won’t be disappointed!

Zǒuguò lùguò búyào cuòguò! Shénxiān àidòu, yánzhí néng dǎ, zhuānyè zàixiàn! Rùgǔ bù kuī, wěn zhuàn bù péi!

走过路过不要错过!神仙爱豆,颜值能打,专业在线!入股不亏,稳赚不赔

 

You need to buy a gym membership card sooner or later, so just buy it right now! As the saying goes, “After you pass this village you won’t find this shop.” You’ll never find such a great deal again!

Nǐ chízǎo dōu děi bàn jiànshēnkǎ, bùrú xiànzài bàn! Súhuà shuō “guòle zhège cūnr jiù méi zhège diànr.” Yǐhòu kě méiyǒu zhème dà de zhékòu le!

你迟早都得办健身卡, 不如现在办!俗话说“过了这个村儿就没这个店儿”。以后可没有这么大的折扣了

 

免费黄色视频More recent advertising slogans have also appeared in everyday parlance. Health brand Yilishen may have been prevented from trading due to fraudulent claims that its “ant extract” pills can improve men’s virility, but its ad slogan “谁用谁知道 ( Shéi yòng shéi zhīdào. You’ll know when you use it)” remains used even today:

 

The magic of this anti-hair loss shampoo: you’ll know when you use it!

Zhè kuǎn fángtuō xǐfǎshuǐ de shénqí, shéi yòng shéi zhīdào!

这款防脱洗发水的神奇,谁用谁知道!

 

Menswear brand Seven’s claim that “男人就该对自己狠一点 (Nánrén jiù gāi duì zìjǐ hěn yìdiǎn, Men should be tough on themselves)” is a popular method of convincing people to splurge on high-end products.

 

These earphones are expensive, but the sound quality is really good! Just buy them! People should be tough on themselves!

Zhè fù ěrjī suīrán guì, dànshì xiàoguǒ shì zhēnde hǎo! Mǎi ba! Zuòrén jiù gāi duì zìjǐ hěn yīdiǎn!

这副耳机虽然贵,但是效果是真的好!买吧!做人就该对自己狠一点!

 

免费黄色视频L’Oreal’s iconic line, meanwhile, seems to apply to everything:

 

Believe me, a dishwasher will completely change your life! Because you’re worth it!

Xiāngxìn wǒ, yì tái xǐwǎnjī jiù kěyǐ wánquán gǎibiàn nǐ de shēnghuó! Nǐ zhídé yǒngyǒu!

相信我,一台洗碗机就可以完全改变你的生活!你值得拥有!

 

免费黄色视频Sometimes, it can be hard to share your enthusiasm over a discovery without making friends think you really did join a multi-level marketing scheme. For fear of turning others off with overly ardent recommendations, some people purposely adopt a “理中客 (lǐ zhōng kè)” style, meaning “reasonable, neutral, and objective”:

 

I can’t say this brand is great, but it’s pretty good value for the money. If you care more about the quality of the material than design, I think it might be a good choice.

Wǒ bùnéng shuō zhège páizi tèbié hǎo, dànshì xìngjiàbǐ háishi hěn gāo de. Rúguǒ nǐ gèng zàihu zhìdì ér búshì kuǎnshì, nà wǒ juéde zhè shì yí gè búcuò de xuǎnzé.

我不能说这个牌子特别好,但是性价比还是很高的。如果你更在乎质地而不是款式,那我觉得这是一个不错的选择。

 

Others, though, don’t care whether their friends actually take up their recommendation: To them, commerce chat is just another form of small talk, or a strategy to curry favor with the listener by showing consideration for their likes and dislikes:

 

A new milk tea shop has opened around the corner with your favorite “Da Hong Pao” tea leaves, and the taste isn’t too strong. It suits your tastes perfectly.

Jiējiǎo nàbiān xīn kāi le yì jiā nǎichádiàn, cháyè yòng de shì nǐ zuì xǐhuān de Dà Hóng Páo, wèidào yě bú tài nóng, wánquán fúhé nǐ de kǒuwèi.

街角那边新开了一家奶茶店,茶叶用的是你最喜欢的大红袍, 味道也不太浓,完全符合你的口味。

 

It’s not always easy to turn down passionate Amway sellers. Since most people aren’t cool enough to say, “I don’t want it” directly, they look for more polite ways to refuse a pitch. For example:

 

I heard this movie is highly rated, but I’m too scared to watch horror films.

Wǒ tīngshuō le zhè bù diànyǐng píngfēn hěn gāo, dànshì wǒ bùgǎn kàn kǒngbùpiàn.

我听说了这部电影评分很高,但是我不敢看恐怖片。

 

Others make clear that they have no need for the product in question:

 

I like this coat a lot! But I just bought one of the same color. What a shame!

Wǒ hǎo xǐhuān zhè jiàn dàyī a! Dàn wǒ gāng mǎi le yí jiàn tóngyàng yánsè de, tài yíhàn le.

我好喜欢这件大衣啊!但我刚买了一件同样颜色的,太遗憾了。

 

You can distract them by suggesting an unsuspecting third party, who is the perfect audience for this Amway:

 

A: Come watch this TV drama with me! It is definitely the best of this year!

Kuài lái gēn wǒ yìqǐ zhuījù ba! Zhè bù jù juéduì shì jīnnián zuì jiā!

快来跟我一起追剧吧!这部剧绝对是今年最佳!

B: Sorry, I already have a long watch-list! Ask my roommate to watch with you, she likes costume dramas!

Bàoqiàn a, wǒ zǎn le hǎo duō jù méi kàn ne! Qù zhǎo wǒ shìyǒu péi nǐ kàn ba, tā yíxiàng ài kàn gǔzhuāngjù.

抱歉啊,我攒了好多剧没看呢!去找我室友陪你看吧,她一向爱看古装剧。

 

免费黄色视频Another solution is simply to “Amway” back—as the saying goes, offense is the best defense:

 

A: Try this liquid foundation! No other product is as easy to apply!

Shì yíxià zhège fěndǐyè! Zài méiyǒu yánzhǎnxìng bǐ tā gènghǎo de chǎnpǐn le!

试一下这个粉底液!再没有延展性比它更好的产品了!

B: What a coincidence! I have just found this cushioning foundation! It’s so refreshing and light, I bet it would suit you better. Why don’t you try it first?

Zhēn qiǎo, wǒ gāng fāxiàn le yì kuǎn qìdiàn, fēicháng qīngbáo, wǒ gǎn dǎdǔ tā gèng shìhé nǐ! Bùrú nǐ xiān shìshi zhège?

真巧,我刚发现了一款气垫,非常轻薄,我敢打赌它更适合你!不如你先试试这个?

 

Of course, if this is still too much work, there’s always the classic fallback:

 

Got it! I’ll look at it later!

Jì xiàlai le! Wǒ shāohòu kànkan!

记下来了!我稍后看看!

 

免费黄色视频After all, even Li Jiaqi isn’t magic enough to know if you’ve really checked out his recommendations. Not yet, anyway.


“Selling Out” is a story from our issue, “Alpine Ambitions”. To read the entire issue, become a subscriber and receive the full magazine. Alternatively, you can purchase the digital version from the .

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The World of Chinese http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/fangyan-friday-11-the-wuwei-way/ http://marmsweb.com/2020/03/fangyan-friday-11-the-wuwei-way/#respond Fri, 20 Mar 2020 06:45:01 +0000 http://marmsweb.com/?p=125585 For over a decade, The World of Chinese has been offering modern Chinese-language instruction from street talk to social phenomena to character tales. With 129 officially recognized dialects (方言), though, we have barely scratched the surface of everything there is to learn.

How do you tell someone they’re beautiful in Chinese? 漂亮 (piàoliàng) is the standard word in Mandarin that most Chinese learners will know; 巴适 (bāshì) is the Sichuanese word of choice, and 和次 (hècì) is used by those from Wenzhou.

Wuwei, in Anhui province, meanwhile, has developed two ways to compliment a lady on her good looks: 清丝 (qīnsi) and 化得之 (huàdēzhi).

Wuwei’s distinctive dialect is difficult to understand for standard Mandarin speakers. One joke tells of a hotel receptionist who thinks about calling the police when he hears two guests from Wuwei imploring each other, “Nǐ xiān sǐ,” which means “You go first” in the Wuwei dialect, but sounds like “You die first” in Mandarin. Meanwhile, the Mandarin insult 我呼死你 (wǒ hūsǐ nǐ,“I’ll call you to death” or “I’ll harass you”) sounds the same as a Wuwei-ese term for showing admiration for someone: 我呼思你 (wǒ hūsǐ nǐ)

Wuwei literally means “do nothing,” and may have obtained it’s name during the Three Kingdom’s period (220 – 280 CE). The warlord Cao Cao, on deciding to withdraw his troops from the area, allegedly complained that the location was strategically useless. Wuwei (无为) can also be translated as a Daoist concept of governing by non-interference—locals naturally much prefer this latter explanation.

The dialect of Wuwei is mostly based upon Jiang-Huai or Lower Yangtze Mandarin, which is spoken in areas between the Yangtze and Huai rivers in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. It also shares some common words with Wu Chinese免费黄色视频. Immigration to the area created this melting pot of different dialects that makes up Wuwei-ese today.

Some words in Wuwei-ese are similar to putonghua. For example, ear (耳朵, ěrduǒ in Mandarin) is ěrdāo (耳刀) in Wuwei Chinese; feet (脚, jiǎo in Mandarin) is  juébùxīn (觉不心), and hair, (头发, tóufǎ in Mandarin) is tóumaó (头毛).

免费黄色视频The Wanjiang Reservoir is a scenic destination near Wuwei (by / )

Here are some common expressions used by Wuwei locals:

免费黄色视频1. 捣蛋,给哈歇火。

Dǎodàn, gèihà xīehuǒ. 

I failed and I caused a lot of trouble this time.

捣蛋 (dǎodàn) means “to be met with trouble.”  给哈 (gěihà) here is used as “this time,” and 歇火 (xīehuǒcan be translated as “game over.” The sentence is useful when you make a mess of something.

2.  过秋豆子,你给个胆子不得鸟了蛮?

Guòqiū dòuzī, nǐ gèi gē dǎnzǐ bùdé niǎo lèmān?

You little rascal, how dare you?

过秋豆子 (guòqiūdòuzī), or “off-season beans,” only appear for a short time each year, and is used as an idiom for naughty children, much like “rascal.” 不得鸟 (bùdéniǎo) is an adverb meaning “extremely.” The whole sentence implies a child or person or inferior position who doesn’t know their place.

3. 走,噶门口一阵郭蛋一。

Zǒu, gā mén kǒu yī zhèn guōdàn yī.

Let’s sit and chat together outside.

免费黄色视频In the Wuwei dialect, the sound “ji” is often replaced with “g.” So jiā ménkǒu (家门口, house doorway) in Mandarin, becomes gāménkǒu (噶门口) in Wuwei-ese. 郭蛋(guōdàn) means to chat.

 

Here are some common rules to follow for Wuwei-ese.

1.The ji, qi, xi sounds in standard Mandarin give way to g, k, and h, respectively. For instance, jiā (家), qiā (掐), and xié (鞋) become gā, kā and haí.

2. Just as Beijing Mandarin is defined by the erhua (儿化) added to the end of word, the Wuwei dialect adds zī (子) as a diminutive ending to words and phrases.

免费黄色视频3. Many expressions in Wuwei-ese cannot be understood literally: Take guòjìn (过劲), literally “ beyond a certain extent,” which is used to mean “awesome” or “brilliant.”

4. Sometimes two-word phrases are shortened to a single word. For example, “cheap” (便宜, piányi) becomes qiǎo (巧).

5.  Wuwei locals like to use lots of modal particles for emphasis. For example, 蛮 (mán) is often used at the end of statements:”我在吃东西蛮 (wǒ zài chī dōngxī mān, I’m eating now)”

Cover image of canola blossoms in springtime in Wuwei, by Yang Tingting

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